I study the relationships between physiochemical properties of drugs, their formulations and the effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. I work interdisciplinary and integrate chemistry, molecular biology, biochemistry and molecular toxicology in my research. I am actively engaged in various areas of pharmaceutics including biochemical, cellular and whole-animal models, with a focus on infectious diseases and cancer. My specific strengths are in the understanding of the molecular and cellular determinants of formulations, the development of polymeric and lipid based nanoparticulate formulations and molecular mechanisms whereby ingredients exert their toxic effects on living organisms. Principle contributions include 1) Proved enhanced absorption of therapeutic peptides by polymer and lipid based drug delivery to enhance; 2) Developed polymer drug delivery systems for infectious diseases; 3) Optimised lipid based delivery systems in delivery of drugs for infectious diseases and cancer. We made significant contributions in the practical development of treatments specifically for infectious diseases.